Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Hemiramphidae
Etymology: Hyporhamphus: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, rhamphos = beak, bill (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 6 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa through the Indian Ocean islands to western Australia, New Guinea, Philippines, and islands of Oceania. Not found in Hawaiian islands, and apparently absent from Indo-Malayan Archipelago. Has been mentioned in the literature under other names, particularly Hyporhamphus erythrorinchus and Hyporhamphus dussumieri (Ref. 10943).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 13 - ? cm
Max length : 38.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 54980)
Found chiefly around coral reefs (Ref. 58534) and islands but extends a little further from shore than Hyporhamphus (R.) dussumieri which has a similar range (Ref. 10943). Found in schools (Ref. 9710). Feeds on zooplankton (Ref. 43448) also small fishes and detritius organic matter (Ref. 89972). Eggs covered with adhesive filaments to assist in attaching to floating and benthic objects (Ref. 43448).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collette, B.B. and J. Su, 1986. The halfbeaks (Pisces, Beloniformes, Hemiramphidae) of the Far East. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 138(1):250-301. (Ref. 10943)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 3280 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.48 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (29 of 100) .