Grammonus yunokawai  Nielsen, 2007

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Grammonus yunokawai
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Ophidiiformes (Cusk eels) > Bythitidae (Viviparous brotulas) > Bythitinae
Etymology: Grammonus: Greek, gramma = signal, mark + Greek, onos = hake;  yunokawai: Named for Mr. Kyo Yunokawa, of Ie-shima Diving Center..   More on author: Nielsen.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range ? - 20 m (Ref. 75999).   Temperate

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northwest Pacific: Japan.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 9.8 cm SL (female)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal soft rays (total): 83; Anal soft rays: 64; Vertebrae: 41. This species has the following characters: Dorsal-fin rays 83; anal-fin rays 64; caudal fin rays 9; pectoral 23-24; vertebrae 12 + 29; anterior anal fin ray is placed below 23rd dorsal fin ray; maximum depth of head is 32.0% SL; predorsal length 41.5% SL; interorbital width 10.5% SL; height of posterior margin of maxilla 8.4% SL (Ref. 75999).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Known only from one female specimen with ovaries containing eggs up to about 0.5 mm in diameter and apparently with no embryos. It was caught by hand in the back of the cave in absolute darkness. The head and lateral line pore systems are well developed, also the sensory papillae on the head and body, indicating adaptation to the lightless environment Also observed and caught were a shrimp Parhippolyte misticia and the fishes Pseudamia hayashiiand Apogon evermanni (Ref. 75999).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Nielsen, J.G., 2007. Grammonus yunokawai (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae), a new marine cave fish from the Ryukyu Islands. Ichthyol. Res. 54(4):374-379. (Ref. 75999)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .