Synanceia horrida  (Linnaeus, 1766)

Estuarine stonefish
Add your observation in Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Synanceia horrida   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Upload your photos and videos
Pictures | Google image
Image of Synanceia horrida (Estuarine stonefish)
Synanceia horrida
Picture by Allen, G.R.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes (Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Synanceiidae (Stonefishes) > Synanceiinae
Etymology: Synanceia: Greek, syn = as a whole + Greek, aggeion = vein.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 40 m (Ref. 90102).   Tropical, preferred ?

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Indo-West Pacific: India to China, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Reported from Vanuatu (Ref. 13300).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4690)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 13 - 14; Dorsal soft rays (total): 6; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 5. A drab species, usually brownish grey to reddish brown with a pattern of fine lines across the caudal fin. Eyes well elevated compared to the reef stonefish S. verrucosa (Ref. 48635).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits coastal reefs and estuaries (Ref. 9710). Makes a shallow depression by scooping up sand or mud with its pectoral fins until it is piled up around the sides of its body. Lies motionless on sandy bottom areas. Comes out at night and often moves on top of reefs (Ref. 48635). In Guinness Book of Records as most venomous fish (Ref. 6472). Solitary in coral rubble and rocks, extremely difficult to detect (Ref 90102).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Randall, J.E., G.R. Allen and R.C. Steene, 1990. Fishes of the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. 506 p. (Ref. 2334)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 4716)




Human uses

Aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Food consumption
Ration
Common names
Synonyms
Metabolism
Predators
Ecotoxicology
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Length-frequencies
Morphometrics
Morphology
Larvae
Larval dynamics
Recruitment
Abundance
References
Aquaculture
Aquaculture profile
Strains
Genetics
Allele frequencies
Heritability
Diseases
Processing
Mass conversion
Collaborators
Pictures
Stamps, Coins
Sounds
Ciguatera
Speed
Swim. type
Gill area
Otoliths
Brains
Vision

Tools

Special reports

Download XML

Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.3   ±0.7 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (63 of 100) .