Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathoides: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 10 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical; 32°N - 32°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 19 - ? cm
Max length : 29.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4281)
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and Knysna, South Africa (Ref. 4281) to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales.
Occur in protected coastal shallows over or among algae, seagrasses (Ref. 41878), or floating weeds (Ref. 1602). Juveniles occasionally found near the surface (Ref. 4281). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The males carry the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205). Used in Chinese medicine to extract Hailong, one of the important drugs (Ref. 12206). Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35416).
Male carries the eggs in a brood pouch (Ref. 205).
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00055 (0.00024 - 0.00127), b=3.10 (2.91 - 3.29), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.6 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming annual Fec<1000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100) .