Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Kyphosidae
(Sea chubs) > Kyphosinae
Etymology: Kyphosus: Greek, kyphos = bent (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 45 m (Ref. 58652). Tropical, preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 35°N - 30°S, 30°E - 140°W
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Hawaiian, Line and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan, south to Australia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6642); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57863)
Found in aggregations over hard, algal coated bottoms of exposed, surf-swept outer reef flats, lagoon and seaward reefs, to a depth of at least 24 m (Ref. 30573). Benthopelagic (Ref. 58302). Juveniles associated with floating material (Ref. 58302). Mainly herbivorous, feeding on seaweed and associated invertebrates (Ref. 30573). Appear to be more commonly involved in hallucinogenic fish poisoning than most other related species (Ref. 4690). Caught with other types of artisanal gear. Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 30874.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Knudsen, S.W. and K.D. Clements, 2013. Revision of the fish family Kyphosidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Zootaxa 3751(1):001-101. (Ref. 95491)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Poisonous to eat (Ref. 4690)
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 2.9 ±0.33 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.25).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .