Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sphyraenidae
Etymology: Sphyraena: Greek, sphyraina, -es = the name of a fish (Ref. 45335). More on author: Day.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range ? - 66 m (Ref. 58018). Tropical; 32°N - 24°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5491); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9137)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to the Hawaiian, Marquesan and Tuamoto islands, north to southern Japan. No record from the Western Central Pacific but H. Senou believes that it occurs from the Philippines to north-eastern Australia (Ref. 9768). The exact range is uncertain because of confusion of this species with Sphyraena helleri (Ref. 9768).
Inhabits lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Also found in bays (Ref. 9768). Schooling species. Nocturnally active (Ref. 9768).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Myers, R.F., 1991. Micronesian reef fishes. Second Ed. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam. 298 p. (Ref. 1602)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00359 - 0.01679), b=2.92 (2.75 - 3.09), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100) .