Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Stolephorus: Greek, stole, -es = garment + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous; depth range 20 - 50 m (Ref. 28016). Tropical; 30°N - 37°S, 23°E - 144°W (Ref. 189)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 12 - ? cm
Max length : 15.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573); common length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 30573)
soft rays: 18 - 21. Belly with 2 to 6 small needle-like pre-pelvic scutes. Maxilla tip pointed, reaching to or only just beyond front border of pre-operculum; hind border of pre-operculum convex, rounded. Isthmus muscle tapering evenly forward to hind border of branchial membrane. Body light transparent fleshy brown, with silver stripe down flank; no dark pigment lines on back between head and dorsal fin.
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and South Africa, including the Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mauritius eastward to Hong Kong, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), northern and eastern coasts of Australia and further east to Samoa and Tahiti.
A schooling species occurring in coastal waters and which appears to enter at least the estuarine parts of rivers and to tolerate brackish water. Feeds most likely on zooplankton, but more data needed. In Manila Bay, the Philippines, it migrates out into deeper and more saline water to spawn, returning inshore immediately thereafter. Processed into nuoc-man (fish pickle) in Indo-China (Ref. 4929). Used as bait in the tuna fishery in the South Pacific, although said to be fragile. Also Ref. 58652.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
In Manila Bay, migrates out into deeper and more saline water to breed (at about 9 cm SL and above), returning immediately thereafter.
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: occasionally
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00293 - 0.00713), b=3.15 (3.02 - 3.28), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.71-1.42).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (11 of 100) .