Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Stolephorus: Greek, stole, -es = garment + Greek, pherein = to carry (Ref. 45335). More on author: Lacepède.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; anadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 27°N - 24°S, 38°E - 155°E (Ref. 189)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189); common length : 8.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)
soft rays: 18 - 19. Belly slightly rounded with 0-5 small needle-like pre-pelvic scutes. Maxilla tip pointed, reaching to or a little beyond hind border of pre-operculum, the latter convex, rounded. Small teeth on hyoid bones. Isthmus muscle tapering evenly forward. Body light transparent fleshy brown with a pair of dark patches behind occiput, followed by a pair of lines to dorsal fin origin. Bears a silver stripe on flanks. Closely resembles S. apiensis of Fiji and Samoa; S. brachycephalus of Papua New Guinea.
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, from Gulf of Aden to Zanzibar, northern Madagascar and Mauritius (but not from Red Sea or Persian Gulf) eastward to Hong Kong and Papua New Guinea. Apparently replaced by Stolephorus apiensis in Fiji and Samoa.
A schooling fish found in coastal waters, apparently entering brackish water. Occurs in Godavari estuary, India, from February to June in salinities of 19.6-32.0 ppt, but almost totally absent in subsequent flood season. Feeds on surface plankton, primarily copepods and prawn larvae. Eggs are oval with a knob. Used for food and fish meal (Ref. 4537).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00327 - 0.01398), b=3.16 (2.98 - 3.34), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.20 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.95-0.96).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (14 of 100) .