Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes
(Herrings) > Engraulidae
(Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Encrasicholina: Greek, egkrasicholos, -os, -on = mixed with spleen.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 189). Tropical; 25°N - 14°N, 165°W - 143°W (Ref. 189)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 189)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 13 - 15. Most specimens without pre-pelvic scutes, but some with 1 to 5 thin needle-like scutes. Maxilla tip blunt, reaching to front border of pre-operculum, but scarcely projecting beyond second supra-maxilla. Isthmus short, preceded by a small fleshy plate on urohyal between branchial membranes. Anal fin short, its origin behind base of last dorsal fin ray.
Eastern Central Pacific: endemic to Hawaii, but its use as a baitfish may spread its range.
Epipelagic (Ref. 58302). A schooling species living close inshore and entering bays, inlets, estuaries, canals and even penetrating into fish ponds, thus able to tolerate a wide range of salinities. Feeds mainly on planktonic crustacean larvae. Breeds throughout the year, with a peak in summer, spawning at night (between 2200 and 0200 hours) in bays and estuaries (Ref. 189).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Spawns in bays and estuaries. Spawning is said to be continuous throughout the season (Ref. 32412, 40290).
Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00468 (0.00222 - 0.00985), b=3.15 (2.97 - 3.33), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.30 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .