Anchoa spinifer  (Valenciennes, 1848)

Spicule anchovy
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Anchoa spinifer   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Anchoa spinifer (Spicule anchovy)
Anchoa spinifer
Picture by Carvalho Filho, A.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Clupeiformes (Herrings) > Engraulidae (Anchovies) > Engraulinae
Etymology: Anchoa: Italian ancioa = anchovy (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; freshwater; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 1 - 55 m, usually 5 - 30 m (Ref. 9298).   Tropical; 14°N - 26°S, 87°W - 32°W (Ref. 189)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Panama to Trinidad and south to at least Santos, Brazil, perhaps further. Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica to the northern border of Peru at 3°34'S, perhaps further. Also found in freshwater.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 31 - 37. Snout about 3/4 eye diameter; maxilla long, tip pointed, reaching to or a little beyond edge of gill cover; anterior gill rakers mere stumps; hind border of gill cover with a small triangular projection; panamensis-type gill cover canals. Pectoral fin long; anal fin origin below midpoint of dorsal fin base. A silver stripe along flank in small individuals, disappearing with age (Ref. 189).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

A coastal species that apparently forms large schools. Enters brackish and fresh waters. Feeds on small fishes (including clupeoids) and prawns (Ref. 12225). Seems to spawn over an extended period in Costa Rica (small fishes caught in February, September and October). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9298).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Probably an extended spawning season in Costa Rica (small fishes caught in February, September and October (Ref. 189). Spawn in school (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Whitehead, P.J.P., G.J. Nelson and T. Wongratana, 1988. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/2):305-579. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 189)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 25.2 - 28.2, mean 27.4 (based on 122 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00270 - 0.00775), b=3.17 (3.03 - 3.31), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.71 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.