Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Myliobatiformes
(Stingrays) > Myliobatidae
(Eagle and manta rays) > Myliobatinae
Etymology: Pteromylaeus: Greek, pteron = wing, fin + Greek, mylio = mill, grinder (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 150 m (Ref. 6808). Subtropical; 44°N - 35°S, 19°W - 36°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 90.0, range 35 - 148 cm
Max length : 222.0 cm WD (female); common length : 150 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 57025); max. published weight: 116.0 kg (Ref. 85836)
Long, flat, rounded snout like a duck's bill; head thick and pectoral disc with sharply curved, angular corners; upper or lower jaw; usually with 7 rows of flat teeth (Ref. 5578). Light brown with several pale blue-grey stripes (may be absent) dorsally, white ventrally (Ref. 5578).
Eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Morocco to Angola, including the Mediterranean, Madeira and the Canary Islands; then from Saldanha Bay to Natal (South Africa) and southern Mozambique (Ref. 5578).
Found in coastal tropical and warm temperate waters, occasionally offshore. Sometimes found in small groups (Ref. 5578). Feed on bottom-living crustaceans and mollusks. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), aplacental (Ref. 57025). Prized angling fish, often released (Ref. 5578). Flesh highly esteemed (Ref. 3965).
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449). Gestation about 6 months; 3-7 young produced (Ref. 5578). Size at birth 45 cm WD (Ref. 6677).
Schneider, W., 1990. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa. Rome: FAO. 268 p. (Ref. 2683)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.57 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Fec=3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (56 of 100) .