Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Balistidae
Etymology: Balistes: Latin, balista, -ae = crossbowman. In Greek, ballo = to throw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gmelin.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 7348), usually 0 - 50 m (Ref. 7348). Tropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); max. published weight: 1.8 kg (Ref. ); max. published weight: 1.8 kg
Eastern Atlantic: Morocco to Angola, including the Canary Islands, and Cape Verde.
Found over sand and rock bottoms of coastal waters. Feeds on crabs and bivalves (Ref. 4727).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harmelin-Vivien, M.L. and J.-C. Quéro, 1990. Balistidae. p. 1055-1060. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7348)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.03090 (0.01831 - 0.05216), b=2.96 (2.81 - 3.11), based on LWR estimates for species & Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.43 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100) .