Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Salmoniformes
(Salmons) > Salmonidae
(Salmonids) > Salmoninae
Etymology: Salmo: Latin, salmo, Plinius = salmon (Ref. 45335). More on author: Pallas.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; anadromous (Ref. 51243). Temperate
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043)
Distinguished from congeners in Black Sea basin by its unique caudal fin only slightly emarginate and yellow or orange eggs, about 5 mm in diameter. Can be further separated from other species of the genus by having 16-18 gill rakers, usually 18 ( vs. 13-18, usually 16, in Salmo trutta) (Ref. 59043).
Eurasia: rivers draining to Black Sea; Lipkovska stream in upper Vardar drainage (Macedonia).
There are anadromous, lacustrine and resident forms. At the sea, it occurs along coasts at depths of up to 50 m. Undertakes migration to hill streams. Resident part of populations live in streams and uppermost reaches with fast current, cold clear water and stone or gravel bottom. Spawns in upper reaches with fast current. Spawns in October-January. Parrs live in rivers and streams for 2-4 years, then smoltify and migrate to sea or mature in freshwater. Spends 2-4 years in the sea. Parrs and resident adults feed on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates. Anadromous and large lacustrine individuals prey mostly on fish and large crustaceans. Anadromous individuals feed while in rivers. Damming hinders most returning adults to reach spawning sites (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01047 (0.00477 - 0.02296), b=3.03 (2.86 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (65 of 100) .