Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Pomadasys: Greek, poma, -atos = cover, operculum + Greek, dasys = with hair (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; depth range ? - 100 m (Ref. 57395), usually 20 - 50 m (Ref. 2683). Tropical; 20°C - ? (Ref. 2799); 20°N - 22°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 57395); common length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3660)
(total): 11 - 12;
soft rays: 8 - 9;
Vertebrae: 27. Diagnosis: body oblong and compressed, not very deep; snout short and pointed, distinctly longer than eye diameter; 2 anterior pores on chin, followed by a median pit bearing openings of another pair of pores; a deep groove and a pore above maxilla, below the preorbital bone; second anal fin spine longer and stouter than third; caudal fin slightly forked; scales slightly ctenoid; 4-5 scale rows between lateral line and middle of spinous dorsal-fin base; swim bladder simple, without anterior horns (Ref. 57395).
Coloration: silvery, with round, dark brown and irregularly scattered spots following scale rows on back and sides; dorsal and caudal fins grey; a dark spot at angle of opercle (Ref. 57395).
Eastern Atlantic: west coast of Africa, from Mauritania (Ref. 7376, 57395) to southern Angola (Ref. 2799, 57395).
Inhabit sandy and muddy bottoms of coastal waters and estuaries (Ref. 2683). Sometimes found in freshwater (Ref. 2135, 57395). Feeds on fish and benthic crustaceans (Ref. 28587) as well as on mollusks and worms (Ref. 27121). Breeds in brackish water lagoons and estuaries, and even freshwaters (Ref. 57395).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Bauchot, M.-L., 2003. Haemulidae. p. 495-503 In C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, Tome 2. Coll. Faune et Flore tropicales 40. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Museum National d'Histoire Naturalle, Paris, France and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris, France. 815 p. (Ref. 57395)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01259 (0.00821 - 0.01930), b=2.94 (2.82 - 3.06), based on LWR estimates for species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .