Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; catadromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 20 - 350 m (Ref. 58488). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959); 32°N - 34°S, 23°E - 170°W
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9710); common length : 25.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4967)
(total): 11 - 12;
soft rays: 7 - 10. Lower opercular spine extending well beyond the opercular flap. Post temporal bone exposed posteriorly and serrate. Body color is fawn above, cream below, nape dark; head, body and fins with and iridescent sheen. Three or four curved dark brown bands run from the nape to the hind part of the body, the lowermost continuing across the middle of the caudal fin.
Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Australia, and Lord Howe Island.
Found over shallow sandy bottoms, in the vicinity of river mouths. Enter estuaries and rivers (Ref. 1479, 11230, 44894, 48635). Adults in loose aggregations (Ref. 48635). Juveniles common in sandy intertidal areas; often in tidal pools. Minimum depth reported is 20 m (Ref. 12260). Found in schools (Ref. 9710). Omnivorous (Ref. 7300), feeding on fishes, insects, algae, and sand-dwelling invertebrates (Ref. 9710). Spawn in the sea and juveniles migrate into fresh water (Ref. 2847). Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205). Produce sound (Ref. 9137). Marketed fresh, dried or salted (Ref. 12693).
Eggs are guarded and fanned by the male parent (Ref. 205).
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01660 (0.01266 - 0.02175), b=2.99 (2.91 - 3.07), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (37 of 100) .