Raja montagui  Fowler, 1910

Spotted ray
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Raja montagui
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays) > Rajiformes (Skates and rays) > Rajidae (Skates)
Etymology: Raja: Latin, raja, -ae = a sting ray (Raja sp.) (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Fowler.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; demersal; depth range 8 - 530 m (Ref. 88171).   Temperate; 61°N - 16°N, 18°W - 25°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 61.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 80.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3261); common length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3261); max. reported age: 18 years (Ref. 88187)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 0. Sub-rhomboid in shape with a short rostrum and rounded wing-tips. Upper surface almost smooth in young, but prickly in large specimens, except for bare centers of pectoral fins and hind part of disc, underside nearly smooth; orbital thorns separate, a regular row of 20-50 usually persistent thorns from nape to first dorsal fin; with 1-2 thorns between dorsal fins; 2 equal-sized dorsal fins at end of tail. Brownish dorsally with numerous small dark spots which do not reach the margin of the disc, frequently with a concentration of dark spots forming a ring around a pale centre on hind part of each pectoral fin, underside white (Ref. 3167).

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Shetlands, southern North Sea and the western Baltic to Mauritania, including the western part of the Mediterranean (to Tunisia and western Greece).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found mainly along the continental shelf (Ref. 3167). Depth range from 8-283 m in the northeast Atlantic (Ref. 82399), in the southern part of its range it occurs down to 530 m (Ref. 78469, 89037), but most common between 20-120 m (Ref. 88187). Prefers habitats with sand or mud bottoms (Ref. 78469). Juveniles usually found in shallow sandy inshore areas, adults utilize more offshore sand or sand-gravel habitats (Ref. 82399, 89038). Species buries itself to avoid predation and ambush potential prey. Feeds mainly on crustaceans (Ref. 3167) with prey size increasing as it grows (Ref. 88171), also preys on benthic worms, cephalopods and small fishes (Ref. 41849, 58137). Most individuals attain a length of 40-60 cm (Ref. 3261). Oviparous. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Detects weak electric fields generated by other organisms and generate its own weak electric fields (Ref. 10311).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous. Distinct pairing with embrace. Paired eggs are laid during summer (Ref. 3167). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 5.3-7.8 cm long and 3.0-5.0 cm wide (Ref. 41250). Fully formed pups hatch after about 5-6 months and are about 11-12 cm in length (Ref. 78469, 88187).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : McEachran, John | Collaborators

McEachran, J.D. and K.A. Dunn, 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of skates, a morphologically conservative clade of elasmobranchs (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae). Copeia 1998(2):271-290. (Ref. 27314)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans


Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
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Swim. type
Gill area


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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | Public aquariums | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00263 (0.00160 - 0.00432), b=3.26 (3.13 - 3.39), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.9   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.18-0.21; tm=8; tmax=14; Fec=24).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (59 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.