Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Menticirrhus: Latin, mentum = beard, chin + Latin, cirrus = curly.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 40 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 41°N - 51°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 18.1  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9626); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 1.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Western Atlantic: New York to Texas, USA and Bay of Campeche to Buenos Aires, Argentina; absent in southern Florida and the Antilles.
Inhabits coastal waters, usually over sandy-mud to hard sand bottoms. Common along beaches. Juveniles occur usually in water of lower salinity.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N., 1978. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3702)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00675 - 0.00853), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .