Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Menidae
Etymology: Mene: Greek, mene, meneos = strength (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 50 - 200 m (Ref. 47690). Tropical; 32°N - 28°S
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 14.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47690); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 47690)
Indo-Pacific: East Africa to southern Japan and northeastern Australia. Recorded from the South China Sea (Ref. 4883) and the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819).
Inhabits deeper coastal waters near the bottom on both the continental shelves and around major island groups; sometimes in river estuaries (Ref. 47690, 48635). Found in schools (Ref. 47690, 48635). Feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 5213). Readily dries in air without salting (Ref. 4375, 48635). Marketed fresh and dried (Ref. 47690). Minimum depth from Ref. 30573.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1984. Menidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean fishing area 51. Vol. 3. (Ref. 3465)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.00855 - 0.05344), b=3.02 (2.80 - 3.24), based on LWR estimates for this Family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.41 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.19-1.2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100) .