Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Echeneidae
Etymology: Remora: Latin, remora = delay, hindrance (1567) (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range ? - 200 m (Ref. 86942). Subtropical
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5288)
Worldwide in warm seas. Western Indian Ocean: including Reunion and Mauritius (Ref. 33390). Eastern Pacific: off San Francisco in California, USA to Chile, but rare north of Baja California in Mexico. Western Atlantic: Florida in USA and Gulf of Mexico to Brazil (Ref. 7251). Eastern Central Atlantic: St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121).
Host specific on manta rays, but occasionally attaches to sharks. Often occurs inside gill chamber and mouth of host. Also attaches itself to black marlin, Makaira indica, of the Indo-Pacific Region (Ref. 7251). Rarely free-swimming (Ref. 10791). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gray, K.N., J.R. McDowell, B.B. Collette and J.E. Graves, 2009. A molecular phylogeny of the remoras and their relatives. Bull. Mar. Sci. 84(2):183-198. (Ref. 86676)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5352 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00275 (0.00112 - 0.00679), b=3.15 (2.93 - 3.37), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.4 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming Fec < 10,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .