Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Percidae
(Perches) > Luciopercinae
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; demersal; depth range 5 - ? m (Ref. 10999). Temperate; ? - 30°C (Ref. 12741); 55°N - 32°N
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 32.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 76.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723); common length : 35.8 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 12193); max. published weight: 4.0 kg (Ref. 4699); max. reported age: 18 years (Ref. 72496)
North America: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Alberta in Canada, and south to northern Alabama and Louisiana in the USA. Introduced into Atlantic, Gulf and southern Mississippi River drainages.
Inhabit sand and gravel runs, sandy and muddy pools and backwaters, of small to large rivers; less often in lakes and impoundments (Ref. 10294, 11003). Larvae feed on cladocera, copepods, and midge larvae, while juveniles consume fishes (Ref. 10294). Spawn between March and June (Ref. 10999) in pairs or small aggregations (Ref. 11003).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr, 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 p. (Ref. 5723)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5312 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00617 (0.00332 - 0.01144), b=3.14 (2.96 - 3.32), based on LWR estimates for this species & Subfamily-body sh (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.68 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.23; tmax=7).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (49 of 100) .