Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Syngnathiformes
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathidae
(Pipefishes and seahorses) > Syngnathinae
Etymology: Syngnathus: Greek, syn, symphysis = grown together + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Girard.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 96339). Subtropical; 61°N - 22°N, 150°W - 109°W
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 32.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 93899); 38.5 cm TL (female)
Eastern Pacific: Sitka, Alaska to southern Baja California in Mexico; the northern population ranges from Alaska to Monterey Bay, southern population from Morro Bay southward.
Common in eelgrass of bays and estuaries, sometimes taken in shallow offshore waters (Ref. 5316). Feeds on crustaceans (Ref. 6885). Females larger than males (R.C. de Graaf, pers. Comm., 2001; Ref. 93899). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 205). The male carries the eggs in a brood pouch which is found under the tail (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
A female wraps herself around a male in a rigid vertical S position. Eggs are fertilised in the brood pouch of the male (Ref. 6885).
Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald and H. Hammann, 1983. A field guide to Pacific coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 336 p. (Ref. 2850)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00035 (0.00017 - 0.00070), b=3.09 (2.92 - 3.26), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.40 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (tmax=2;).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .