Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes
(Puffers and filefishes) > Molidae
(Molas or Ocean Sunfishes)
Etymology: Mola: Latin, mola, -ae = stone mill; because of the shape of this fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; depth range ? - 300 m (Ref. 86942). Temperate
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 300 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4424)
Clavus supported by about 16 fin rays, of which 12 bear ossicles. Ossicles close together, much broader than spaces between them (Ref 12900).
Southwest Pacific: Australia and New Zealand. Southeast Pacific: Chile (Ref. 9068). Southeast Atlantic: South Africa.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Heemstra, P.C., 1986. Molidae. p. 907-908. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4424)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.8125 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02291 (0.00856 - 0.06127), b=3.02 (2.79 - 3.25), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.5 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (84 of 100) .