Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Temperate; 47°N - 36°N, 27°E - 54°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2058); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 59043)
soft rays: 10 - 15. This species is distinguished from related species in Europe by the following characters: interorbital distance equal to eye diameter; nape completely scaled; pelvic disc fraenum with small, rounded lobes, fraenum length < 1/6 of its width at base; pelvic disc reaching 60-70 % of distance between its origin and anus; first branched ray of second dorsal about twice as long as penultimate ray; scales in midlateral series 57-67 + 2-3 (Ref. 59043).
Europe and Asia: Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea basins. Found in the sea only but enter estuaries in some areas (Ref. 92840).
Occurs inshore, on shelly ground, sand, muddy sand or mud. May enter freshwaters. Feeds on crustaceans (mysids, corophiid amphipods), small fish (gobies), bivalves, polychaetes, and chironomid larvae. Sexually mature at 1 to 2 years (Ref. 4696). Spawns in March to June with females spawning at least twice during this season. Adhesive eggs are deposited under or between stones, shells and aquatic plants and males guard the eggs until hatching (Ref. 59043).
Miller, P.J., 1986. Gobiidae. p. 1019-1085. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Volume 3. UNESCO, Paris. (Ref. 4696)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00676 (0.00425 - 0.01076), b=3.20 (3.07 - 3.33), based on LWR estimates for species & (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.48 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .