Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Pleuronectiformes
(Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae
Etymology: Phrynorhombus: Greek, phryne = toad + Greek, rhombos = paralelogram (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; benthopelagic; depth range 10 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 200 m (Ref. 35388). Temperate; 71°N - 46°N, 25°W - 25°E
Northeast Atlantic: off Iceland and from Murman coast to Bay of Biscay.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 12.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4703)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Rough scales on both sides. Dorsal fin origin above upper eye. Pelvic and anal fins not used (Ref. 35388).
Occurs on rocky bottoms between 10 and 180 m. Feeds on small fish and invertebrates (Ref. 4703). Spawns in April - July (Ref. 35388).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Nielsen, J.G., 1986. Scophthalmidae. p. 1287-1293. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 3. (Ref. 4703)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES (Ref. 115941)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 7.3 - 12.5, mean 10 (based on 1188 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.0020 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01023 (0.00511 - 0.02050), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.60 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .