Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Caranx: French, carangue, the name of a Caribbean fish; 1836 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; benthopelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 12 - 354 m (Ref. 9710), usually 24 - 65 m (Ref. 5217). Subtropical; 30°N - 30°S, 180°W - 180°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 38 - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5217); max. published weight: 17.9 kg (Ref. 40637)
Circumtropical. Western Indian Ocean: off Natal and East London in South Africa (Ref. 3197, 11228); Reunion, Mauritius and Cargados Carajos (Ref. 33390); Seychelles (Ref. 10685). Western Pacific: southern Japan to New Caledonia. Recently reported from Tonga (Ref. 53797). Western Atlantic: Bermuda and the northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, St. Paul's Rocks (Ref. 13121), Ascension Island, Cape Verde, and Gulf of Guinea. Eastern Central Pacific: Mexico (including Revillagigedo Islands) to Costa Rica.
An oceanic and insular species, very much restricted to clear oceanic waters (Ref. 9283). Not commonly found in shallow banks (Ref. 9283). Sometimes seen near drop-off at outer edge of reefs (Ref. 26938). Occasionally forming schools. Feed on fishes at night (Ref. 5213). Eggs are pelagic (Ref. 4233). Marketed mainly fresh, also dried or salted (Ref. 9283).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Paxton, J.R., D.F. Hoese, G.R. Allen and J.E. Hanley, 1989. Pisces. Petromyzontidae to Carangidae. Zoological Catalogue of Australia, Vol. 7. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 665 p. (Ref. 7300)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 9710)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01820 (0.01439 - 0.02301), b=2.94 (2.91 - 2.97), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.8 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.12).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (60 of 100) .