Lethrinus miniatus  (Forster, 1801)

Trumpet emperor
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Lethrinus miniatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Lethrinus miniatus
Picture by Randall, J.E.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Lethrinidae (Emperors or scavengers) > Lethrininae
Etymology: Lethrinus: Greek, lethrinia, a fish pertaining to genus Pagellus.

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 2295).   Tropical; 28°N - 34°S, 112°E - 168°E

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 31 - 35 cm
Max length : 90.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9987); max. published weight: 9.6 kg (Ref. 9987); max. reported age: 22 years (Ref. 2290)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. Snout moderately long. Cheek without scales. Body silvery, tan or yellowish in color, often with a series of 8 or 9 dark bars. Vertical bars may be absent in some individuals. Base of pectoral fin red. Occasionally a red streak is present, originating on the upper operculum, passing beneath the eye and on to the snout. Reddish lips. Fins pale or reddish, sometimes brilliant red on membranes near base of pelvic fin and between spinous rays of dorsal and anal fin. The base of scales often black.

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Pacific: northern Australia (including Western Australia), New Caledonia, and the Ryukyu Islands. Occurrence records outside distributional range probably refer to Lethrinus olivaceus.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults inhabit coral reefs during daytime where they feed occasionally in sand and rubble areas between coral heads. At night, they move out over the sandy sea floor and forage actively. Usually occur in small schools. Juveniles live in shallow, inshore waters such as seagrass and mangrove areas, moving into deeper water as they age (Ref. 27260, 28202). Feed mainly on crustaceans, echinoderms, mollusks and fish, with crabs and sea urchins predominating. Much of the information reported for this species was based on misidentifications and referred to L. olivaceous (see Ref. 2295). Marketed fresh or frozen (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

L. miniatus are serial hermaphrodites with a protogynous strategy (i.e, female first, male second). Sexual bimodality was present in both age and length frequency distributions (Brown et al 1994). Juveniles live in shallow, inshore waters such as seagrass and mangrove areas, moving into deeper water as they age (Ref. 27260, 28202). Also Ref. 103751.

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen, 1989. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 4690)

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
FAO(Aquaculture: production; ; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Food consumption
Common names
Egg development
Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins
Swim. type
Gill area


Special reports

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | BOLDSystems | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | iSpecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | uBio | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.01175 - 0.02951), b=3.04 (2.91 - 3.17), based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.2   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.1-0.4; tm=2-3; tmax=22).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (53 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.