Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Scorpaeniformes
(Scorpionfishes and flatheads) > Scorpaenidae
(Scorpionfishes or rockfishes) > Scorpaeninae
Etymology: Scorpaena: Latin, scorpaena = a kind of fish, 1706 (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; demersal; non-migratory; depth range 20 - 500 m (Ref. 4510), usually ? - 150 m (Ref. 27000). Subtropical; 60°N - 35°S, 26°W - 36°E
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4510); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2683); max. published weight: 3.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
Eastern Atlantic: British Isles (rare) to Senegal including Madeira, the Canary Islands, and Cape Verde. Also throughout the Mediterranean except Black Sea. South African species thought to be the same as population in the northeast Atlantic (Ref. 4313).
Solitary and sedentary over rocky, sandy or muddy bottoms. Feeds on fishes, crustaceans and mollusks (Ref.4570).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Hureau, J.-C. and N.I. Litvinenko, 1986. Scorpaenidae. p. 1211-1229. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol 3. (Ref. 4570)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01288 (0.01053 - 0.01576), b=3.01 (2.97 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.08).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High to very high vulnerability (68 of 100) .