Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 0 - 25 m (Ref. 26999). Tropical, preferred 27°C (Ref. 107945); 17°N - 7°S, 17°W - 14°E (Ref. 54448)
Africa: West African coasts and estuarine areas from Senegal to Angola (Ref. 188, 81270).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 13.0, range 13 - 18 cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27000); common length : 16.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 188)
soft rays: 45 - 50. Diagnosis: Body moderately deep, compressed, belly with 25 to 27 + 7 or 8 sharp scutes (Ref. 188, 81270). Dorsal fin at or before midpoint of body; pelvic fins small; anal fin long, with more than 40 finrays, its origin below dorsal fin base (Ref. 188). Swimbladder with two short tubes passing back in the muscles on either side of haemal spines (Ref. 188). Other clupeoid fishes in the area are more slender, have a much shorter anal fin and the lower jaw is not strongly projecting (Ref. 188).
Found in the marine environment, pelagic, along beaches and just offshore, down to about 25m; also in lagoons and estuaries, penetrating into almost freshwater (Ref. 188). It feeds on small planktonic animals, like crustaceans (Ref. 188).
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeioidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf-herrings. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(7/1):1-303. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 188)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00724 (0.00567 - 0.00925), b=2.99 (2.93 - 3.05), based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=0.8-1.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (19 of 100) .