Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical; 20°C - 30°C (Ref. 2059)
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6028); common length : 18.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 41236); max. published weight: 2.7 kg (Ref. 6028)
Asia: India and Sri Lanka.
Inhabits cool, fast flowing, rocky streams and rivers. Occurs in mountain lakes (Ref. 41236). Moves to upper reaches of small streams to spawn (Ref. 41236). Feeds on plants, insects, shrimps and mollusks. Can be cultured in ponds and lakes. Regarded to be of medicinal value. Known to grow over a meter and 45 kg in weight but have not been recorded in recent times (Ref. 41236).
Two types of spawning behavior have been observed. In one, the female slowly swims along the side of the streams, spawning, while the male stays close behind fertilizing the eggs. In the other type, the male digs a small hollow in the gravel of the substrates into which the female deposits the eggs as they are being fertilized by the male. The female continues to lay eggs in different parts of the streams over a period of few weeks.
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. vol 1. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. 541 p. (Ref. 4832)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00565 - 0.02332), b=3.02 (2.85 - 3.19), based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.1 ±0.43 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .