Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Umbrina: Latin, umbra, -ae = shadow, in the sense of phantom; due to its quick movements (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; demersal; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 3593). Subtropical, preferred 14°C (Ref. 107945); 46°N - 30°N, 18°W - 42°E
Eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay and Gibraltar to southern Morocco, including the Mediterranean, Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Records south of Morocco have not been supported with descriptions.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 73.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3593); max. published weight: 3.1 kg (Ref. 40637)
Found over rocky and sandy bottoms in coastal waters. Juveniles enter estuaries. Feed on bottom invertebrates.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Group synchronous oocytes. A multiple-batch spawner (Ref. 109248).
Chao, L.N. and E. Trewavas, 1990. Sciaenidae. p. 813-826. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 3593)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: experimental; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00532 - 0.01361), b=3.07 (2.94 - 3.20), based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.46 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.28).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100) .