Lagocephalus laevigatus  (Linnaeus, 1766)

Smooth puffer
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Lagocephalus laevigatus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Smooth puffer)
Lagocephalus laevigatus
Picture by Alvheim, O./Institute of Marine Research (IMR)

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Tetraodontiformes (Puffers and filefishes) > Tetraodontidae (Puffers) > Tetraodontinae
Etymology: Lagocephalus: Greek, lagos = hare + Greek, kephale = head (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; pelagic-neritic; depth range 10 - 180 m (Ref. 27121).   Subtropical; 44°N - 40°S, 97°W - 16°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: New England, USA and Bermuda to Argentina (Ref. 47377). Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Namibia (Ref. 27121).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 100.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3694); common length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3694); max. published weight: 4.9 kg (Ref. 40637)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 13-15; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 12 - 13

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits inshore and near-shore areas, over sand or mud bottoms. Usually found alone or in small, loose aggregates. Adults are pelagic, but near continental margins; young are commonly found on coastal and offshore banks (Ref. 7251). Feeds on fish and shrimps (Ref. 28587). Minimum depth from Ref. 26912. Its flesh is very delicate; nevertheless, in certain region like the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, it is toxic (particularly the skin and the viscera) (Ref. 5377). Poisonous, should not be eaten (Ref. 36731).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Matsuura, Keiichi | Collaborators

Shipp, R.L., 1990. Tetraodontidae. p. 1069-1072. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7464)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other (Ref. 5377)




Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5005   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.01230 - 0.03090), b=2.80 (2.67 - 2.93), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.0   ±0.69 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.