Paranthias furcifer  (Valenciennes, 1828)

Creole-fish
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Paranthias furcifer   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Paranthias furcifer
Picture by Wirtz, P.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Serranidae (Sea basses: groupers and fairy basslets) > Epinephelinae
Etymology: Paranthias: Greek, para = in the side of, near + Greek, anthis = a fish, Sparus aurata (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 8 - 100 m (Ref. 9710), usually 10 - 66 m (Ref. 13442).   Subtropical; 35°N - 25°S, 98°W - 11°E (Ref. 5222)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: Ascension Island and Gulf of Guinea islands of Principe, São Tomé, and Annobon. Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Campeche Bank, and throughout the Caribbean (except in northern Bahamas) to Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26938); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2739)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-19; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8 - 10. Distinguished by the following characteristics: Head short (less than 35% of SL) (Ref. 26938); head and body reddish brown, paler ventrally; bright orange-red spot at the upper end of the pectoral-fin base; 3 widely spaced white spots between lateral line and dorsal-fin base; 2 blue lines on the cheek, one approximately horizontal and tangential to the lower edge of the eye, other along the upper edge of maxilla and continued onto the lower part of the cheek; depth of body contained 2.9-3.4 times in SL; subangular preopercle, vertical edge and rear half of lower edge finely serrate; subequal posterior and anterior nostrils (Ref. 89707).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Inhabits coral reefs and hard bottom areas. Observed in feeding aggregations well above the reef. Feeds mainly in midwater on zooplankton (copepods, pelagic tunicates, shrimps and shrimp larvae). Retreats instantly when alarmed (Ref. 9710).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Heemstra, Phillip C. | Collaborators

Heemstra, P.C. and J.E. Randall, 1993. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (family Serranidae, subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. Rome: FAO. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(16):382 p. (Ref. 5222)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: subsistence fisheries; aquarium: commercial; bait: usually
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.22-0.28).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.