Azurina eupalama  Heller & Snodgrass, 1903

Galapagos damsel
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Azurina eupalama   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Azurina eupalama
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Pomacentridae (Damselfishes) > Pomacentrinae
Etymology: Azurina: Latin, azurinus = blue, pale blue; the name of Leuciscus caeruleus, blue Roach; 1600 (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 5 - 30 m (Ref. 28023).   Tropical; 1°N - 1°S

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Eastern Central Pacific: Cocos and the Galapagos Islands. This species has not been seen since the 1982/83 El Niño event (Ref. 27438).

Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 28023)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 13; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10-11; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 11 - 12. Color olive-gray with a light-blue tint, silver on the ventral side; snout dusky, a black spot at pectoral fin base; pale gray pelvic and anal fins, dusky dorsal fin. Body more slender compared to other Galápagos damselfish. Preorbital bone smooth without a notchlike projection; edge of preopercle irregular, weakly serrate. Lateral line complete and conspicuous (Ref. 28023).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Apparently this species prefers open water near drop-offs, although individuals are found in a variety of inshore habitats to depths of 30 meters. It is not a common species and resident aggregations have strong preferences for specific sites. Feeds mainly on plankton in the water column, usually in heterotypic aggregations with Chromis atrilobata. Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Prior to the 1982-83 El Niño, a small aggregation frequented the shallow water just west of Pinnacle Rock at Bartolomé. But despite intensive observations during the decade after this event, no records of this species were made (Ref. 28023).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator : Allen, Gerald R. | Collaborators

Grove, J.S. and R.J. Lavenberg, 1997. The fishes of the Galápagos Islands. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 863 p. (Ref. 28023)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Critically Endangered (CR) (B1ab(i,ii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iv,v))

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




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FAO(Publication : search) | FishSource |

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Aquatic Commons | BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoobank | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.7 - 24.5, mean 23.9 (based on 9 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.7500   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01479 (0.00671 - 0.03258), b=2.98 (2.79 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.4   ±0.45 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100) .