Environment / Climate / Range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Tropical, preferred ?; 11°S - 29°S
Africa: Cunene, Okavango, upper Zambezi systems and east coastal rivers from the Limpopo to the Umfolozi in northern Natal; an isolated population is found in the Orange River below the Augrabies Falls (Ref. 7248). Also known from the lower Luapula (upper Congo River basin)(Ref. 52959).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7248)
Occurs in shoals; prefers well-aerated, open water of flowing rivers. Feeds from the water column on planktonic crustaceans and insects such as midges and ants. Attracted to light at night. Breeds in early summer (Ref. 7248).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Skelton, P.H., 1993. A complete guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Southern Book Publishers. 388 p. (Ref. 7248)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 109396)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00741 (0.00338 - 0.01626), b=3.04 (2.85 - 3.23), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.2 ±0.37 se; Based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (18 of 100) .