Bairdiella ronchus  (Cuvier, 1830)

Ground croaker
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Bairdiella ronchus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Bairdiella ronchus (Ground croaker)
Bairdiella ronchus
Picture by Krumme, U.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Sciaenidae (Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Bairdiella: From Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887) American naturalist and vertebrate zoologist leading authority in birds and mammals (Ref. 45335).

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 16 - 40 m (Ref. 3702).   Tropical; 23°N - 30°S, 89°W - 34°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea southward to Brazil.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 15.8  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 21-26; Anal spines: 2; Anal soft rays: 7 - 9. Colour greyish above, silvery below. Faint dark streaks on sides, oblique above, longitudinal below lateral line. Dorsal and caudal fins greyish with dark margin, anterior part of anal fin speckled. Mouth subterminal and oblique. Chin without barbel but with 5 pores. Preopercle serrated with few strong pines at angle. Second anal-fin spine very strong, as long as first soft ray. Gas bladder with 2 chambers, the anterior one yoke-shaped without appendages, the posterior one simple, carrot-shaped. Lapillus (small earstone) enlarged, more than half of sagitta (large earstone) (Ref 51721).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in coastal waters, over muddy and sandy bottoms. Feeds on fishes and crustaceans. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Important food fish.

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Chao, L.N., 1978. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3702)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(Publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

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Internet sources

BHL | Cloffa | Websites from users | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | DiscoverLife | ECOTOX | Faunafri | Fishes of Iran | Fishtrace | GenBank(genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | IGFA World Record | MitoFish | National databases | Otolith Atlas of Taiwan Fishes | PubMed | Reef Life Survey | Scirus | SeaLifeBase | Tree of Life | Wikipedia(Go, Search) | World Records Freshwater Fishing | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5312   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00776 - 0.00977), b=3.09 (3.06 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.5   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 69278):  High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Fec = 188,964).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.