Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Beloniformes
(Needle fishes) > Exocoetidae
Etymology: Hirundichthys: latin, hirundo = swift; 1300 + Greek, ichthys = fish (Ref. 45335).
Environment / Climate / Range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243). Subtropical; 43°N - 34°S
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3397)
Subtropical waters of all oceans. Eastern Atlantic: occasional to Spain and English Channel, western Mediterranean (a separate population migrates to the southeastern part in winter), Portugal to Mauritania and from south of Namibia; also off the Cape, South Africa (Ref. 2797). Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda to southern Brazil (Ref. 7251). Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).
Inhabits oceanic surface waters. Capable of leaping out of the water and gliding for considerable distances above the surface (Ref. 3720). Eggs with bunch of filaments opposed by a single filament on opposite pole (Ref. 6523).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Parin, N.V., 1986. Exocoetidae. p. 612-619. In P.J.P. Whitehead, M.-L. Bauchot, J.-C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese (eds.) Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6523)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 96402)
CITES (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates of some properties based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00162 - 0.01126), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278
): 3.0 ±0.1 se; Based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (17 of 100) .