Fish Identification: Find Order
Glossary 13 orders of sharks and rays FishBase

shovelnose rays
Rhinopristiformes - shovelnose rays


stingrays
Myliobatiformes - stingrays
Gill openings ventral; anterior edge of the greatly enlarged pectoral fin attached to side of head, anterior to the gill openings; anal fin absent; eyes and spiracles on dorsal surface; anterior vertebrae fused to form a synarcual; suprascapulae of pectoral girdles joined dorsally over vertebral column and articulating with column of synarcual or fused with synarcual; nictitating membrane absent, cornea attached directly to skin around the eyes; body generally strongly depressed; jaws protrusible in most; teeth pavementlike; in most, water for breathing taken in chiefly through the spiracle rather than the mouth (except for those living off the bottom); most give birth to live young (some have eggs encased in a horny capsule); the snout may function as an electroreceptive organ (as may be true for all elasmobranchs).


skates and rays
Rajiformes - skates and rays
Gill openings ventral; anterior edge of the greatly enlarged pectoral fin attached to side of head, anterior to the gill openings; anal fin absent; eyes and spiracles on dorsal surface; anterior vertebrae fused to form a synarcual; suprascapulae of pectoral girdles joined dorsally over vertebral column and articulating with column of synarcual or fused with synarcual; nictitating membrane absent, cornea attached directly to skin around the eyes; body generally strongly depressed; jaws protrusible in most; teeth pavementlike; in most, water for breathing taken in chiefly through the spiracle rather than the mouth (except for those living off the bottom); most give birth to live young (some have eggs encased in a horny capsule); the snout may function as an electroreceptive organ (as may be true for all elasmobranchs).


electric rays
Torpediniformes - electric rays
Disc truncate or emarginate anteriorly; jaws extremely slender; no labial cartilages; rostrum absent or reduced.


sawfishes
Pristiformes - sawfishes
Snout produced in a long flat blade with teeth on each side (teeth of equal size and embedded in deep sockets); barbels absent; body somewhat sharklike, although the head is depressed; two distinct dorsal fins and a caudal fin.


angel sharks
Squatiniformes - angel sharks
Body raylike; eyes dorsal; two spineless dorsal fins; no anal fin; five gill openings; spiracle large; mouth almost terminal; nostrils terminal with barbels on anterior margin. Maximum length up to 2 m.


saw sharks
Pristiophoriformes - saw sharks
Body sharklike; snout produced in a long flat blade with teeth on each side (teeth unequal in size, usually alternating large and small, and weakly embedded); one pair of long barbels; no dorsal fin spines (sometimes present as internal rudiments); anal fin absent; spiracles large. Maximum length 1.4 m.


bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks
Squaliformes - bramble, sleeper and dogfish sharks
Two dorsal fins, with or without spines; anal fin absent; five gill slits; spiracles present; nictitating lower eyelid absent. Many species are known from deep water.


ground sharks
Carcharhiniformes - ground sharks
Two dorsal fins (one dorsal fin in the scyliorhinid Pentachus profundicolus, known only from the holotype), without spines; anal fin present; five gill slits, with the last one to three over the pectoral fin; gill rakers absent; eyes with nictitating fold or membrane; spiracles present or absent; intestinal value of spiral or scroll type. Development may be oviparous, ovoviparous, or viviparous.


mackerel sharks
Lamniformes - mackerel sharks
Two dorsal fins, without spines; anal fin present; five gill slits, last two may be above pectoral fin; spiracles usually present, small and behind eyes; eyes without nictitating membrane; mouth extending well behind eyes.


carpet sharks
Orectolobiformes - carpet sharks
Two dorsal fins, without spines; mouth very short, confined to being well in front of eyes; nostrils specialized, with prominent nasoral grooves wit barbels in most; spiracles too large, below the eye except in Rhincodon; many with small gill slits and with fifth slit overlapping the fourth behind the origin of pectoral fin.


bullhead and horn sharks
Heterodontiformes - bullhead and horn sharks
Two dorsal fins, each with a spine; anal fin present; five gill slits; eyes without nictitating fold; spiracle present but small; nostrils connected with mouth by deep grove.


frill and cow sharks
Hexanchiformes - frill and cow sharks
One dorsal fin, without spine; anal fin present; six or seven gill slits; eyes without nictitating fold; spiracle present but small and well behind eye.


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