Gadus morhua  Linnaeus, 1758

Atlantic cod
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Image of Gadus morhua (Atlantic cod)
Gadus morhua
Picture by Morris, P.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Gadiformes (Cods) > Gadidae (Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Gadus: Latin, gadus = a fish, cod? (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

环境 / 气候 / 范围 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 600 m (Ref. 1371), usually 150 - 200 m (Ref. 54441).   溫帶; 0°C - 15°C; 83°N - 35°N, 95°W - 86°E (Ref. 1371)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

North Atlantic and Arctic: Ungava Bay in Canada along the North American coast to Cape Hatteras; North Carolina in the western Atlantic. East and west coast of Greenland; around Iceland; from Barents Sea including the region around Bear Island along the European coast to Bay of Biscay (Ref. 88171).
北大西洋: 到 Ungava 海灣的岬 Hatteras 沿著北美海岸; 東方與格陵蘭的西岸; 冰島的周圍; 歐洲從比斯開灣到巴倫支海的海岸, 包括區域在有島周圍。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 63.4, range 31 - 74 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); common length : 100.0 cm TL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 1371); 最大体重: 96.0 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大年龄: 25 年 (Ref. 173)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 44-55; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 33 - 45; 脊椎骨: 51 - 55. Protruding upper jaw, a conspicuous barbel on the lower jaw, and light lateral line, curved above the pectoral fins. Predorsal distance is less than one third of total length; body depth about 1/5 of total length. Color varies from brownish to greenish or gray dorsally and on upper sides, becoming pale and silvery ventrally. Peritoneum silvery.
光侧线,在胸鳍上面弯曲了。 前背的距离少于 TL 的 1/3 。 颜色改变从褐色的到呈绿色或灰色的背面与在上侧面上, 变成腹侧灰白。 腹膜银色的。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Widely distributed in a variety of habitats, from the shoreline down to the continental shelf. Juveniles prefer shallow (less than 10-30 m depth) sublittoral waters with complex habitats, such as seagrass beds, areas with gravel, rocks, or boulder, which provide protection from predators (Refs. 89383, 89384). Adults are usually found in deeper, colder waters. During the day, form schools and swim about 30-80 m above the bottom, dispersing at night to feed (Ref. 1371, 89385). Omnivorous; feed at dawn or dusk on invertebrates and fish, including young cod. (Ref. 1371). Migrate between spawning, feeding and overwintering areas, mostly within the boundaries of the respective stocks. Migrations >200 km are rare occurrences (Refs. 89386, 89387). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

这种是广泛分布于多种栖息地, 从海岸线向下至大陆架。 鳕鱼形成鱼群在白天期间。 鳕鱼是杂食性的; 他们在破晓或薄暮在无脊椎动物与鱼上吃,包括幼鱼鳕鱼。 鳕鱼每年一次产卵。 他们是生鲜销售,乾燥或盐腌,烟熏而且冻结; 他们被清蒸,油炸,火烤, 煮沸, 微波而且烧烤。 (参考文献 9988) 最重要的分枝在巴伦支海与冰岛的分枝中是挪威的北极分枝。 族群格陵兰与纽芬兰的周围已经戏剧性地消退。 (参考文献 35388) 联机粒体细胞色素 b 基因的 307 基底对区域的超过 12 核甘替换区别来自 格陵兰鳕[Gadus ogac] 的这种。 (参考文献 40214)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawning occurs in winter and beginning of spring, where big schools are formed. Spawning sites are in offshore waters, at or near the bottom, in 50-200 m depth and 0-12 °C (preferred range 0-6°C) (Refs. 1371, 89387). May form spawning aggregations in the water column when bottom temperatures are unsuitable (Ref. 1371). Different spawning areas may be used in subsequent years (Ref. 89387). Embryo development lasts about 14 days (at 6°C) and larval phase lasts about 3 months(at 8°C). Fecundity ranges from 2.5 million eggs in a 5 kg female to a record of 9 million eggs in a 34 kg female. Reported number of batches spawned in an experiment is 8 - 22 (Ref. 5513). Sex ratio is nearly 50%, with slight predominance of females. Classified as a determinate multiple spawner (Ref. 40290). Older and larger cod had been found to produce larger eggs with neutral buoyancy at lower salinities. This can be crucial to egg and larval survival (Refs. 31930, 38384). Larvae are pelagic up to 2.5 months before settling on the bottom (Ref. 1371). In the Baltic, spawning cumulates in March at depths below 20 m near the bottom. The nursery areas are in the inner coastal zone. Recruitment to the fished stock starts below 2 years and peaks at about 3 years of age (Ref. 5947).北大西洋: 到 Ungava 海灣的岬 Hatteras 沿著北美海岸; 東方與格陵蘭的西岸; 冰島的周圍; 歐洲從比斯開灣到巴倫支海的海岸, 包括區域在有島周圍。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的




人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的
FAO(养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.5 - 10.3, mean 6.6 (based on 769 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00629 - 0.00796), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (rm=0.2-1.1; also (Ref. 36717)).
Prior r = 0.47, 2 SD range = 0.23 - 0.96, log(r) = -0.76, SD log(r) = 0.36, Based on: 15 M, 56 K, 98 tgen, 2 tmax, 37 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.