Gadus morhua  Linnaeus, 1758

Atlantic cod
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Gadus morhua
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分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

条鰭類 > Gadiformes (Cods) > Gadidae (Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Gadus: Latin, gadus = a fish, cod? (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

環境 / 気候 / 範囲 生態学

; 海; 汽水性の 底生の漂泳性; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 600 m (Ref. 1371), usually 150 - 200 m (Ref. 54441).   Temperate; 0°C - 15°C; 83°N - 35°N, 95°W - 86°E (Ref. 1371)

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North Atlantic and Arctic: Ungava Bay in Canada along the North American coast to Cape Hatteras; North Carolina in the western Atlantic. East and west coast of Greenland; around Iceland; from Barents Sea including the region around Bear Island along the European coast to Bay of Biscay (Ref. 88171).

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 63.4, range 31 - 74 cm
Max length : 200 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 1371); common length : 100.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 1371); 最大公表体重: 96.0 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大記録サイズ: 25 年 (Ref. 173)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 44-55; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 33 - 45; 脊つい: 51 - 55. Protruding upper jaw, a conspicuous barbel on the lower jaw, and light lateral line, curved above the pectoral fins. Predorsal distance is less than one third of total length; body depth about 1/5 of total length. Color varies from brownish to greenish or gray dorsally and on upper sides, becoming pale and silvery ventrally. Peritoneum silvery.

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Widely distributed in a variety of habitats, from the shoreline down to the continental shelf. Juveniles prefer shallow (less than 10-30 m depth) sublittoral waters with complex habitats, such as seagrass beds, areas with gravel, rocks, or boulder, which provide protection from predators (Refs. 89383, 89384). Adults are usually found in deeper, colder waters. During the day, form schools and swim about 30-80 m above the bottom, dispersing at night to feed (Ref. 1371, 89385). Omnivorous; feed at dawn or dusk on invertebrates and fish, including young cod. (Ref. 1371). Migrate between spawning, feeding and overwintering areas, mostly within the boundaries of the respective stocks. Migrations >200 km are rare occurrences (Refs. 89386, 89387). Marketed fresh, dried or salted, smoked and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Spawning occurs in winter and beginning of spring, where big schools are formed. Spawning sites are in offshore waters, at or near the bottom, in 50-200 m depth and 0-12 °C (preferred range 0-6°C) (Refs. 1371, 89387). May form spawning aggregations in the water column when bottom temperatures are unsuitable (Ref. 1371). Different spawning areas may be used in subsequent years (Ref. 89387). Embryo development lasts about 14 days (at 6°C) and larval phase lasts about 3 months(at 8°C). Fecundity ranges from 2.5 million eggs in a 5 kg female to a record of 9 million eggs in a 34 kg female. Reported number of batches spawned in an experiment is 8 - 22 (Ref. 5513). Sex ratio is nearly 50%, with slight predominance of females. Classified as a determinate multiple spawner (Ref. 40290). Older and larger cod had been found to produce larger eggs with neutral buoyancy at lower salinities. This can be crucial to egg and larval survival (Refs. 31930, 38384). Larvae are pelagic up to 2.5 months before settling on the bottom (Ref. 1371). In the Baltic, spawning cumulates in March at depths below 20 m near the bottom. The nursery areas are in the inner coastal zone. Recruitment to the fished stock starts below 2 years and peaks at about 3 years of age (Ref. 5947).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless




Human uses

水産業: 高い商業の; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい
FAO(水産養殖: 代謝, 種の外形; 水産業: 代謝, 種の外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

用具

特記事項

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 0.5 - 10.3, mean 6.6 (based on 769 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00708 (0.00629 - 0.00796), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  4.1   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (rm=0.2-1.1; also (Ref. 36717)).
Prior r = 0.47, 2 SD range = 0.23 - 0.96, log(r) = -0.76, SD log(r) = 0.36, Based on: 15 M, 56 K, 98 tgen, 2 tmax, 37 Fec records
弱み (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (65 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.