Solea solea  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common sole
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Image of Solea solea (Common sole)
Solea solea
Picture by Canosa, C. & B.F. Souto

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 辐鳍鱼纲 (条鳍鱼) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Soleidae (Soles)
Etymology: Solea: Latin, solea = sandal (shoe); refered to the flat shape of the fish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 半咸淡水 居于水底的; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 150 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 60 m (Ref. 6302).   亞熱帶的; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 67°N - 17°N, 17°W - 37°E (Ref. 54889)

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southward from Trondheim Fjord (including North Sea and western Baltic) and Mediterranean Sea (including Sea of Marmara, Bosporus and southwestern Black Sea) (Ref. 4710). Elsewhere, southward to Senegal (Ref. 4710), including Cape Verde (Ref. 5304).
東大西洋: 來自特倫汗峽灣 (包括北海與波羅海西部) 與地中海 (包括馬爾馬拉海, 博斯普魯斯海峽與西南方的黑海) 的南方. 其他地方,向南至塞內加爾, 包括維德角。 (參考文獻 5304)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 30.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 4710); common length : 35.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 5504); 最大体重: 3.0 kg (Ref. 5504); 最大年龄: 26 年 (Ref. 32766)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 0; 背的软条 (总数): 69-97; 臀棘 0; 臀鳍软条: 53 - 80; 脊椎骨: 46 - 52. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oval, flat and asymmetric; eyes located on right side of head, except in reversed individuals (Ref. 57416). Upper eye less than its own diameter from dorsal profile of head (Ref. 4710). Anterior nostril on blind side not enlarged (Ref. 4710, 57416), but surrounded by small rim (Ref. 57416). Its distance from front margin of head 1.5-1.9x in its distance from cleft of mouth; anterior nostril on eyed side with backward-pointing tube not or only barely reaching front border of lower eye (Ref. 4710). Preopercle covered by skin and opercle entirely scaled; mouth arched and inferior; dorsal and anal fins lacking spinous rays and united to caudal fin by well-developed membrane, but caudal peduncle distinct; dorsal fin originating on horizontal axis through upper eye; pectoral fin on eyed side asymmetrical, with 7-10 rays, and on blind side slightly shorter; straight part of lateral line visible, supratemporal part slightly arched above eyes; body covered with rectangular ctenoid scales (Ref. 57416).
卵形的躯干, 头部圆的。 眼睛上方少于来自头部的背面轮廓的它自己的直径。 在没有眼睛的一边上的前鼻孔不增大了。 背鳍起点在头部的上面轮廓。 眼旁的浅灰褐色到红褐色的, 有大的与扩散的深色斑点。 在眼侧边上的胸鳍在鳍的后端具有一个黑色的斑块。 尾鳍的后部部份通常比休息颜色更深。

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults occur at a temperature range of 8.0-24.0°C (Ref. 4944). Usually solitary. They burrow into sandy and muddy bottoms. Retreat to deeper water during winter (Ref. 9988). Juveniles are found during the first 2 to 3 years in coastal nurseries (bays and nurseries) before migrating to deeper waters (Ref. 92286). Adults feed on worms, mollusks and small crustaceans at night. Waden sea is the most important nursery area. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Recruitment is very variable. Frequently found pelagically during spawning migrations (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh and frozen; utilized steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

生存在一个 8.0-24.0 °C 的温差。 (参考文献 4944) 通常独居性的。 钻进沙泥底里面。 在冬天期间撤退回较深的水域。 (参考文献 9988) 吃蠕虫,软件动物与小型甲壳动物在晚上。 在市场上销售生鲜和冷冻; 利用蒸,油炸, 火烤, 微波而且烧烤。 (参考文献 9988) Waden 海洋是最重要的育幼区域。 入添非常可变。 在生殖回游的时候, 时常大洋性地发现.(参考文献 35388)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawning takes place in shallow coastal waters at temperatures of 6 - 12°C. Reproduction starts after 3-5 years of age, when 25-30cm size is reached. Spawning happens mainly during the months of February-May (for example, off the coasts of Galicia), although in warmer areas (such as the Mediterranean), it can occur at the beginning of the winter. Incubation lasts about 5 days (at 1 2°) and larval phase 35 days (at 18°C). 東大西洋: 來自特倫汗峽灣 (包括北海與波羅海西部) 與地中海 (包括馬爾馬拉海, 博斯普魯斯海峽與西南方的黑海) 的南方. 其他地方,向南至塞內加爾, 包括維德角。 (參考文獻 5304)

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Desoutter, M., 1992. Soleidae. p. 860-865. In C. Levêque, D. Paugy, and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest Tome 2. Faune Tropicale n° 28. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique and O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, France, 902. (Ref. 7395)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的




人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 水族馆: 公众的水族馆
FAO(养殖: 产生; 渔业: 产生, 物种外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 周边海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9 - 20, mean 11.4 (based on 678 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00645 - 0.00934), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
回复力 (Ref. 69278):  中等的, 族群倍增时间最少 1.4 - 4.4年 (K=0.21-0.33; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=100,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 1.02, log(r) = -0.78, SD log(r) = 0.4, Based on: 2 M, 26 K, 17 tgen, 2 tmax, 13 Fec records
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.