Solea solea  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common sole
إضافة ملاحظاتك Fish Watcher
ارفع صور و مقاطع فيديو
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | صور قوقل
Image of Solea solea (Common sole)
Solea solea
Picture by Canosa, C. & B.F. Souto

التصنيف / Names الأسماء الشائعة | مرادفات | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

شعاعيات الزعانف > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Soleidae (Soles)
Etymology: Solea: Latin, solea = sandal (shoe); refered to the flat shape of the fish (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range البيئة

; بحري; مياه مخلوطة القاع; محيطية (Ref. 51243); نطاق العمق 0 - 150 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 60 m (Ref. 6302).   Subtropical; 8°C - 24°C (Ref. 4944); 67°N - 17°N, 17°W - 37°E (Ref. 54889)

التوزيع دول | مناطق الفاو | النظام البيئي | الظهور | Point map | مقدمة | Faunafri

Eastern Atlantic: southward from Trondheim Fjord (including North Sea and western Baltic) and Mediterranean Sea (including Sea of Marmara, Bosporus and southwestern Black Sea) (Ref. 4710). Elsewhere, southward to Senegal (Ref. 4710), including Cape Verde (Ref. 5304).

Length at first maturity / الحجم / وزن / العمر

Maturity: Lm 30.3  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 70.0 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 4710); common length : 35.0 cm SL ذكر/ مختلط الجنس; (Ref. 5504); أعلا وزن تم نشرة: 3.0 kg (Ref. 5504); العمر: 26 سنين (Ref. 32766)

وصف مختصر الوصف الخارجي | قياسات المظهر الخارجي

الأشواك الظهرية (المجموع): 0; الأشعة الظهرية الناعمة (المجموع): 69-97; شوكة شرجية 0; أشعه شرجية لينه: 53 - 80; فقرات: 46 - 52. This species is distinguished by the following characters: body oval, flat and asymmetric; eyes located on right side of head, except in reversed individuals (Ref. 57416). Upper eye less than its own diameter from dorsal profile of head (Ref. 4710). Anterior nostril on blind side not enlarged (Ref. 4710, 57416), but surrounded by small rim (Ref. 57416). Its distance from front margin of head 1.5-1.9x in its distance from cleft of mouth; anterior nostril on eyed side with backward-pointing tube not or only barely reaching front border of lower eye (Ref. 4710). Preopercle covered by skin and opercle entirely scaled; mouth arched and inferior; dorsal and anal fins lacking spinous rays and united to caudal fin by well-developed membrane, but caudal peduncle distinct; dorsal fin originating on horizontal axis through upper eye; pectoral fin on eyed side asymmetrical, with 7-10 rays, and on blind side slightly shorter; straight part of lateral line visible, supratemporal part slightly arched above eyes; body covered with rectangular ctenoid scales (Ref. 57416).

أحياء     المصطلحات (على سبيل المثال epibenthic)

Adults occur at a temperature range of 8.0-24.0°C (Ref. 4944). Usually solitary. They burrow into sandy and muddy bottoms. Retreat to deeper water during winter (Ref. 9988). Juveniles are found during the first 2 to 3 years in coastal nurseries (bays and nurseries) before migrating to deeper waters (Ref. 92286). Adults feed on worms, mollusks and small crustaceans at night. Waden sea is the most important nursery area. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Recruitment is very variable. Frequently found pelagically during spawning migrations (Ref. 35388). Marketed fresh and frozen; utilized steamed, fried, broiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior النضج | التكاثر | وضع البيض | بيض | الخصوبة | Larvae

Spawning takes place in shallow coastal waters at temperatures of 6 - 12°C. Reproduction starts after 3-5 years of age, when 25-30cm size is reached. Spawning happens mainly during the months of February-May (for example, off the coasts of Galicia), although in warmer areas (such as the Mediterranean), it can occur at the beginning of the winter. Incubation lasts about 5 days (at 1 2°) and larval phase 35 days (at 18°C).

المرجع الرئيسي Upload your references | مراجع | المنظم | المتعاونين

Desoutter, M., 1992. Soleidae. p. 860-865. In C. Levêque, D. Paugy, and G.G. Teugels (eds.) Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest Tome 2. Faune Tropicale n° 28. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique and O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris, France, 902. (Ref. 7395)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر للأنسان

  Harmless




استخدامات بشرية

مصائد: ذو قيمة تاجرية عالية; الأستزراع المائي: تجاري; لعبة سمكه: نعم; حوض مائي: احواض مائية عامة
FAO(الأستزراع المائي: الأنتاج; مصائد: الأنتاج, ملف الأنواع; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | البحر حولنا

أدوات

تقارير خاصة

Download XML

مصادر علي الأنترنت

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 9 - 20, mean 11.4 (based on 678 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5020   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00645 - 0.00934), b=3.06 (3.00 - 3.12), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
مستوى غذائي (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.1 se; Based on diet studies.
المرونه (Ref. 69278):  وسيط, الحد الزمني الأدني لتضاعف عدد أفراد المجتمع 1.4-4.4 سنة (K=0.21-0.33; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=100,000).
Prior r = 0.46, 2 SD range = 0.21 - 1.02, log(r) = -0.78, SD log(r) = 0.4, Based on: 2 M, 26 K, 17 tgen, 2 tmax, 13 Fec records
عرضة للخطر (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .
فئة السعر (Ref. 80766):   Very high.