Silurus glanis  Linnaeus, 1758

Wels catfish
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Native range
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Silurus glanis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Silurus glanis (Wels catfish)
Silurus glanis
Picture by Hartl, A.

分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii 輻鰭魚綱 (條鰭魚) > Siluriformes (Catfish) 鯰形目 (Catfish) > Siluridae (Sheatfishes) 鯰科 (Sheatfishes)
Etymology: Silurus: Greek, silouros = a cat fish + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

環境 / 氣候 / 範圍 生態學

; 淡水; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 非遷移的; 深度上下限 0 - 30 m (Ref. 9988).   溫帶; 4°C - 20°C (Ref. 2059), preferred ?; 62°N - 36°N, 0°E - 80°E

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Europe and Asia. North, Baltic, Black, Caspian and Aral Sea basins, as far north as southern Sweden and Finland; Aegean Sea basin in Maritza and from Struma to Sperchios drainages; Turkey. Absent from the rest of Mediterranean basin. Now widely introduced and translocated throught Europe and Lake Balkhash basin in Kazakhstan. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction. In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
歐洲與亞洲。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群). 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm 87.5, range 86 - 108 cm
Max length : 500 cm SL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 59043); common length : 300 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9988); 最大體重: 306.0 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大年齡: 80 年 (Ref. 59043)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 1; 背的軟條 (總數): 4-5; 臀棘 1; 臀鰭軟條: 83 - 95. Distinguished from all other freshwater fishes in Europe by the following unique characters: two pairs of mental barbels; and anal fin with 83-91½ rays. Differs further from the following combination of features: body naked; large, depressed head; dorsal fin with 2-4½ rays; caudal fin rounded or truncate; no adipose fin; and anal rays almost touching caudal (Ref. 59043). Caudal fin with 17 rays (Ref. 2196).
尾鰭有 17個鰭條。 (參考文獻 2196)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Inhabits large and medium size lowland rivers, backwaters and well vegetated lakes (Ref. 59043). Occurs mainly in large lakes and rivers, though occasionally enters brackish water in the Baltic and Black Seas (Ref. 9988). Found in deep waters of dams constructed on the lower reaches of rivers (Ref. 9696). A nocturnal predator, foraging near bottom and in water column. Larvae and juveniles are benthic, feeding on a wide variety of invertebrates and fish. Adults prey on fish and other aquatic vertebrates. Attains first sexual maturity at 2-3 years of age (Ref. 59043). Spawns in the salt water of the Aral Sea (at Kulandy) (Ref. 1441). Marketed fresh, canned and frozen; can be pan-fried and baked (Ref. 9988). Locally threatened due to river regulation destroying shallow spawning sites (Ref. 59043).

主要生活在大的湖與河, 雖然偶然地在波羅的海與黑海進入半淡鹹水.(參考文獻 9988) 發現於建在河的下面範圍上的水壩的深水域了。 (參考文獻 9696) 已知夜間捕食鴨子,野鼠類,小龍蝦與小魚。 產卵在鹹海 (在 Kulandy) 的鹹水。 (參考文獻 1441) 在市場上銷售生鮮地了, 罐裝及冷凍; 可能是油鍋炸而燒烤的。 (參考文獻 9988)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Males defend small territories in the spawning sites and construct nests made of plant materials. They dig shallow depressions or clean spawning substrate such as willow (Salix) and roots. Males guard the nests until larvae emerge. Spawns in pairs. Eggs hatch in 2-3 days. Larvae live in the nest until yolk sac is absorbed for 2-4 (Ref. 59043). Eggs are surrounded by a mucous and adherent wrapping. Incubation lasts about 50 hours at 24°C. Egg size 3 mm, larval length at hatching 8.5 mm (Ref. 26211).歐洲與亞洲。 在伯恩公約的附錄 3 中 (受保育的動物群). 引入後的一些國家報告不利的生態衝擊。

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 | 合作者

Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 1972. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 109396)

CITES (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

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人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 養殖: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(養殖: 產生; 漁業: 產生; publication : search) | FisheriesWiki | 周邊海洋

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5001   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00813 (0.00536 - 0.01232), b=2.92 (2.80 - 3.04), based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.2 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (tm=3-4; tmax=30).
Prior r = 0.29, 2 SD range = 0.1 - 0.87, log(r) = -1.24, SD log(r) = 0.55, Based on: 2 K, 10 tgen, 2 tmax, 5 Fec records
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (84 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.