Scophthalmus maximus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
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Scophthalmus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Scophthalmus maximus
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (peixes com raios nas barbatanas) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).

Ambiente / Clima / Intervalo Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina demersal; oceanódromo (Ref. 51243); intervalo de profundidade 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); Peso máx. publicado: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); Idade máx. registada: 25 anos (Ref. 32766)

Descrição breve Morfologia | Morfometria

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

Biologia     Glossário (ex. epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador | Colaboradores

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para o homem

  Harmless




Utilização humana

Pescarias: espécies comerciais; Aquacultura: espécies comerciais; peixe desportivo: sim; Aquário: Aquários públicos
FAO(Aquacultura: produção, perfil da espécie; pescarias: produção; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Ferramentas

Relatórios especiais

Descarregue XML

Fontes da internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00871 - 0.01319), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 69278):  Médio, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 1,4 - 4,4 anos (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.45, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.82, log(r) = -0.8, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 16 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Very high.