Scophthalmus maximus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
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Scophthalmus maximus
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Classification / Names ຊື່ສາມັນ | ຄຳສັບຄ້າຍຄືກັນ | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

ກຸ່ມປາກະດູກແຂງ > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).

ສະພາບແວດລ້ອມ / ສະພາບອາກາດ / ລະຍະ ນິເວດວິທະຍາ

; ສັດທະເລ; ນ້ຳກ່ອຍ ອາໄສຢູ່ໃກ້ໜ້າດິນໃຕ້ພື້ນທ້ອງນ້ຳ; ປາທີ່ມີການເຄື່ອນຍ້າຍໃນສະເພາະມາະຫາສະມຸດ (Ref. 51243); ລະດັບຄວາມເລິກ 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

ການແຜ່ກະຈາຍ ປະເທດ | ເຂດ FAO | ລະບົບນິເວດ | ການປະກົດຕົວ | Point map | ການແນະນຳ | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / ຂະໜາດ / ນ້ຳໜັກ / Age

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL ຕົວຜູ້/ບໍ່ມີເພດ; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); ນ້ຳໜັກສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍຈັດພີມມາ: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); ອາຍຸສູງສຸດທີ່ເຄຍລາຍງານມາ: 25 ປີ (Ref. 32766)

Short description ສະລີລະວິທະຍາ | ການວັດແທກຮູບຮ່າງລັກສະນະພາຍນອກຂອງດິນ,ສັດ,ປາ…

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

ຊີວະສາດ     ຄຳແປສັບ (ຕ.ຢ. epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior ການຈະເລີນເຕັມໄວ | ການສືບພັນ | ການວາງໄຂ່ | ໄຂ່ | ຄວາມດົກຂອງໄຂ່ປາ | ຕົວອ່ອນ

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

Main reference Upload your references | ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ | ຜູ້ປະສານງານ | ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless




Human uses

ການປະມົງ: ເປັນສີນຄ້າ; ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ: ເປັນສີນຄ້າ; ຊະນິດປາທີ່ຖືກນຳໃຊ້ເຂົ້າໃນການຫາເພື່ອເປັນເກມກິລາ: ແມ່ນ; ຕູ້ປາ: ບ່ອນວາງສະແດງສັນນ້ຳຂອງລັດ
FAO(ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ: ຜົນຜະລິດ, species profile; ການປະມົງ: ຜົນຜະລິດ; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | ທະເລອ້ອມຂ້າງພວກເຮົາ

ຂໍ້ມູນຕື່ມອີກ

ເອກະສານອ້າງອີງ
ການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ
ຂໍ້ມູນການລ້ຽງສັດນ້ຳ
ສາຍພັນ
ກຳມະພັນ
ຄວາມຖີ່ຂອງກຸ່ມຖ່າຍທອດພັນ
ການຖ່າຍທອດທາງກຳມະພັນຈາກພໍ່ແມ່ຫາລູກ
ພະຍາດ
ການປຸງແຕ່ງ
Mass conversion
ຜູ້ຮ່ວມມື
ຮູບ
Stamps, Coins Misc.
ສຽງ
ຫອຍມີພິດຊະນິດນຶ່ງທີ່ອາໄສໃນທະເລ
ຄວາມໄວ
ປະເພດການລອຍ
ເນື້ອທີ່ເຫືອກ
Otoliths
ສະໝອງ
ວິໄສທັດ

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00871 - 0.01319), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
ຊັ້ນເຂດຮ້ອນ (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
ຄວາມຢືດຢຸ່ນ (Ref. 69278):  ຂະໜາດກາງ, ປະຊາກອນຕຳ່ສຸດທີ່ໃຊ້ເວລາສອງເທົ່າ 1.4 - 4.4 ປີ (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.45, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.82, log(r) = -0.8, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 16 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Very high.