Scophthalmus maximus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
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Scophthalmus maximus
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分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

条鰭類 > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 汽水性の 底生の; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

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Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); 最大公表体重: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); 最大記録サイズ: 25 年 (Ref. 32766)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター | 協力者

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless




Human uses

水産業: 商業; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい; 水族館・水槽: 公共の水族館
FAO(水産養殖: 代謝, 種の外形; 水産業: 代謝; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00871 - 0.01319), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.45, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.82, log(r) = -0.8, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 16 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
弱み (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Very high.