Scophthalmus maximus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
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Scophthalmus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Scophthalmus maximus
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Klassifizierung / Names Namen | Synonyme | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (Strahlenflosser) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).

Lebensraum / Klimazone / Range Ökologie

; seewasser; brackwasser demersal; ozeanodrom (Ref. 51243); tiefenbereich 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

Verbreitung Länder | FAO Gebiete | Ecosystems | Vorkommen | Point map | Einführungen | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Size / Gewicht / Alter

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL Männchen/unbestimmt; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); max. veröff. Gewicht: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); max. veröff. Alter: 25 Jahre (Ref. 32766)

Kurzbeschreibung Morphologie | Morphometrie

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

Biologie     Fachlexikon (Englisch) (z.B. epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Geschlechtsreife | Fortpflanzung | Ablaichen | Eier | Fecundity | Larven

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

Hauptreferenz Upload your references | Referenzen | Koordinator | Partner

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

IUCN Rote Liste Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Bedrohung für Menschen

  Harmless




Nutzung durch Menschen

Fischereien: kommerziell; Aquakultur: kommerziell; Sportfisch: ja; Aquarium: Öffentliche Aquarien
FAO(Aquakultur: production, Artbeschreibung; Fischereien: production; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00871 - 0.01319), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Widerstandsfähigkeit (Ref. 69278):  mittel, Verdopplung der Population dauert 1,4 - 4,4 Jahre. (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.45, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.82, log(r) = -0.8, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 16 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Verwundbarkeit (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Preiskategorie (Ref. 80766):   Very high.