Scophthalmus maximus  (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbot
Ajouter votre observation dans Fish Watcher
Native range
Reviewed map
Scophthalmus maximus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
Envoyez vos Photos et vidéos
Pictures | Stamps, Coins Misc. | Images Google
Image of Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)
Scophthalmus maximus
Picture by Quantz, G.

Classification / Names Noms communs | Synonymes | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinoptérygiens (poissons à nageoires rayonnées) > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Scophthalmidae (Turbots)
Etymology: Scophthalmus: Greek, skopelos = a lantern fish + Greek, ophthalmos = eyes (Ref. 45335).

Environnement / Climat / Gamme Écologie

; marin; saumâtre démersal; océanodrome (Ref. 51243); profondeur 20 - 70 m (Ref. 6302).   Temperate; 70°N - 30°N, 23°W - 36°E

Distribution Pays | Zones FAO | Écosystèmes | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Northeast Atlantic: throughout the Mediterranean and along the European coasts to Arctic Circle; also found in most of the Baltic Sea. Subspecies Psetta maxima maeotica in the Black Sea.

Length at first maturity / Taille / Poids / Âge

Maturity: Lm 34.7, range 41 - 54 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 4703); common length : 50.0 cm TL mâle / non sexé; (Ref. 35388); common length :70 cm TL (female); poids max. publié: 25.0 kg (Ref. 9988); âge max. reporté: 25 années (Ref. 32766)

Description synthétique Morphologie | Morphométrie

Body almost circular. Eye side without scales but with large bony tubercles (Ref. 35388).

Biologie     Glossaire (ex. epibenthic)

Adults live on sandy, rocky or mixed bottoms; rather common in brackish waters. Feed mainly on other bottom-living fishes (sand-eels, gobies, etc.), and also, to a lesser extent, on larger crustaceans and bivalves. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). Spawning season is between April and August; pelagic eggs. May reach 25 kg (Ref. 9988). Highly esteemed food fish. Utilized fresh or frozen; eaten steamed, pan-fried, broiled, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturité | Reproduction | Frai | Œufs | Fécondité | Larves

Spawning usually happens between the months of February and April in the Mediterranean and from May to July in the Atlantic. Sequenced spawning every 2-4 days. Eggs have a single fat drop. Larvae are initially symmetric but, at the end of the metamorphosis (day 40-50, 25 mm), the right eye moves to the left side, losing its initial bilateral symmetry. Egg size 0.9 - 1.2 mm, larval length at hatching 2.7-3.1 mm.

Référence principale Upload your references | Références | Coordinateur | Collaborateurs

Bauchot, M.-L., 1987. Poissons osseux. p. 891-1421. In W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification pour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3397)

Statut dans la liste rouge de l'IUCN (Ref. 115185)

  Non évalué 

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Menace pour l'homme

  Harmless




Utilisations par l'homme

Pêcheries: commercial; Aquaculture: commercial; pêche sportive: oui; Aquarium: Aquariums publics
FAO(Aquaculture: production, Résumé espèce; pêcheries: production; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Outils

Articles particuliers

Télécharger en XML

Sources Internet

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 5.9 - 11.9, mean 9.4 (based on 239 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5645   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01072 (0.00871 - 0.01319), b=3.07 (3.01 - 3.13), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Niveau trophique (Ref. 69278):  4.4   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Résilience (Ref. 69278):  Milieu, temps minimum de doublement de population : 1,4 à 4,4 années (K=0.15-0.28; tm=3-5; tmax=26; Fec=5 million).
Prior r = 0.45, 2 SD range = 0.25 - 0.82, log(r) = -0.8, SD log(r) = 0.3, Based on: 16 K, 3 tgen, 1 tmax, 2 Fec records
Vulnérabilité (Ref. 59153):  Moderate vulnerability (43 of 100) .
Catégorie de prix (Ref. 80766):   Very high.