Pleuronectes platessa  Linnaeus, 1758

European plaice
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Image of Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)
Pleuronectes platessa
Picture by Greenfield, J.

Классификация / Names народные названия | синонимы | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

лучеперые рыбы > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range экология

; морской; солоноватоводный демерсальный; мигрирует в океане (Ref. 51243); пределы глубины 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 54°W - 45°E

распространение страны | регионы FAO | Ecosystems | места находок | Point map | интродукции | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).

Length at first maturity / Size / Вес / Возраст

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL самец/пол неопределен; (Ref. 3397); наибольший вес (опубликованные данные): 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); наибольший возраст (опубликованны данные): 50 годы (Ref. 173)

Краткое описание морфология | морфометрия

колючие лучи спинного плавника (общее число): 0; членистые (мягкие) лучи спинного плавника (общее число): 65-79; колючие лучи анального плавника 0; членистые (мягкие) лучи анального плавника: 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.

биология     глоссарий (например epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior половая зрелость | размножение | нерест | икра | Fecundity | личинки

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).

Основная ссылка Upload your references | ссылки | координатор : Amaoka, Kunio | соавторы

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

Статус Красного Списка МСОП (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Угроза для людей

  Harmless




Использование человеком

рыболовство: важный объект промысла; аквакультура (рыбоводство): коммерческий; объект спортивного рыболовства: да; аквариум: общественные аквариумы
FAO(рыболовство: production, Видовой профиль; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

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Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00691 - 0.00872), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic Level (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
устойчивость к внешним воздействиям (Ref. 69278):  средний (среднего размера), минимальное время удвоения популяции 1.4-4.4 года (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.39, 2 SD range = 0.2 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.94, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 4 M, 15 K, 42 tgen, 3 tmax, 26 Fec records
Уязвимость (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
Категория цены (Ref. 80766):   Medium.