Pleuronectes platessa  Linnaeus, 1758

European plaice
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Pleuronectes platessa
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分類 / Names 共通名の | 類義語 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

条鰭類 > Pleuronectiformes (Flatfishes) > Pleuronectidae (Righteye flounders) > Pleuronectinae
Etymology: Pleuronectes: Greek, pleura = side, ribe + Greek, nekton = swimmer (Ref. 45335).   More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態学

; 海; 汽水性の 底生の; 海洋回遊性 (Ref. 51243); 深さの範囲 0 - 200 m (Ref. 35388), usually 10 - 50 m (Ref. 35388).   Temperate; 2°C - 15°C (Ref. 5504); 72°N - 36°N, 54°W - 45°E

分布 国々 | 国連食糧農業機関の区域 | エコシステム | 事件 | Point map | 導入 | Faunafri

Northern Sea. Reports from the Mediterranean Sea appear to be misidentifications of P. flesus. It may have been present in some areas of the Mediterranean in the past, as a result of climatic changes related to the ice age, but at present times seem to be absent (Ref. 89040).

Length at first maturity / サイズ / 重さ / 年齢

Maturity: Lm 30.8, range 24 - 42 cm
Max length : 100.0 cm SL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 4705); common length : 40.0 cm TL オス/雌雄の選別がない; (Ref. 3397); 最大公表体重: 7.0 kg (Ref. 173); 最大記録サイズ: 50 年 (Ref. 173)

簡単な記述 形態学 | 形態計測学

背面の脊椎 (合計): 0; 背鰭 (合計): 65-79; 肛門の骨 0; 臀鰭: 48 - 59. Smooth with small scales. Bony ridge behind the eyes. Upper side brown or greenish brown with irregularly distributed bright red or orange spots. The underside is white. Lateral line straight, slightly curved above pectoral fin. Dorsal fin reaching eye. More than 30 vertebrae.

生物学     用語集 (例 epibenthic)

Adults live on mixed bottoms, the older the deeper the occurrence; small individuals are usually seen on bathing beaches (Ref. 9988). Occurs on mud and sand bottom from a few meters down to about 100 m, at sea, estuaries and rarely entering freshwaters (Ref. 59043). Reported as resident intertidal species with homing behavior (Ref. 32612). Feed mainly on thin-shelled mollusks and polychaetes. Batch spawner (Ref. 51846). The most important flatfish for fisheries in Europe. Utilized fresh and frozen; eaten steamed, fried, boiled, microwaved and baked (Ref. 9988). Active at night in the very shallow water while day time is spent buried in the sand. Stationary for long periods, tagging experiments have shown that their spawning migrations can be long. Changes in the environmental conditions have been disadvantageous. Populations in Kattegat and Danish belts decreased in 1980's and early 1990's due to discharge of nutritive salts. Wadden sea is still an excellent nursery ground (Ref.35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟 | 繁殖 | 放精 | | 生産力 | 幼生

Adult spawn when the temperature is around 6 °C (Ref. 4705).

主な参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | コーディネーター : Amaoka, Kunio | 協力者

Cooper, J.A. and F. Chapleau, 1998. Monophyly and intrarelationships of the family Pleuronectidae (Pleuronectiformes), with a revised classification. Fish. Bull. 96(4):686-726. (Ref. 30193)

IUCNのレッドリストの状況は (Ref. 115185)

CITES (Ref. 115941)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

人間に対する脅威

  Harmless




Human uses

水産業: 高い商業の; 水産養殖: 商業; ゲームフィッシュ: はい; 水族館・水槽: 公共の水族館
FAO(水産業: 代謝, 種の外形; publication : search) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | 私達の周りの海

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インターネットの情報源

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 6.8 - 12.4, mean 10.2 (based on 658 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.6250   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00776 (0.00691 - 0.00872), b=3.06 (3.02 - 3.10), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
栄養段階 (Ref. 69278):  3.2   ±0.50 se; Based on food items.
回復力 (Ref. 69278):  手段, 1.4年~4.4年の倍増期間の最小個体群 (K=0.06-0.34; tm=2-6; tmax=30; Fec=50,000).
Prior r = 0.39, 2 SD range = 0.2 - 0.77, log(r) = -0.94, SD log(r) = 0.34, Based on: 4 M, 15 K, 42 tgen, 3 tmax, 26 Fec records
弱み (Ref. 59153):  High to very high vulnerability (71 of 100) .
価格帯 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.